High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when your blood pressure increases to unhealthy levels. High blood pressure means that the force of the blood against your arterial walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.
Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure.
This is why early detection is important. To gauge your risk for high blood pressure, it is important to understand the risk factors. Some risk factor are within your control and you can take steps to prevent this problem.
Here are the top 10 risk factors for high blood pressure.
1. Age and Race/Ethnicity
Men who are age 45 or above are at an increased risk of high blood pressure. Women are more likely to develop high blood pressure after age 65.
High blood pressure is particularly common among black people, often developing at an earlier age than whites and people of other races and ethnicities. Serious complications, such as a stroke, heart attack and kidney failure, also are more common in blacks (2).
The more you weigh, the more blood flow is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients to your cells and tissues. As the volume of blood circulating through your blood vessels increases, the pressure inside your arteries rises.
Another study published in the BMJ Open Sport & Exercise medicine in 2017 analyzed the prevalence of obesity among student athletes and found that 50 percent of those with elevated blood pressure were either obese or overweight (4).
3. Inactive Lifestyle
Exercise increases blood flow through all the arteries in the body, which in turn leads to a release of natural hormones and cytokines. These hormones help relax blood vessels, which ultimately lowers blood pressure.
A 2010 study published in the International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications found that 60 percent of people who had high blood pressure had a sedentary lifestyle and associations with age and the presence of diabetes (5).
4. High Stress Level
A 1998 study published in the Wisconsin Medical Journal reports that although stress may not directly cause hypertension, it can lead to repeated blood pressure elevations, which eventually may lead to hypertension (7).
You can manage your stress and thus reduce its physical effects by practicing healthy coping techniques, such as muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation.
5. High Salt Intake
Excess sodium can cause your body to hold onto more fluid, and also causes your arteries to constrict. Both these factors can lead to an increase in blood pressure.
A study published in Electrolytes & Blood Pressure in 2014 concludes that a reduction of dietary salt intake can decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and strokes (9).
6. Low Potassium Intake
Potassium is an important mineral that helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells. This means low potassium intake will lead to an accumulation of too much sodium in your blood, which in turn leads to high blood pressure.
Plus, potassium causes the smooth muscle cells in your arteries to relax, which lowers blood pressure.
A 2017 review published in the American Journal of Physiology addresses the possibility that diets higher in potassium is an important means of reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and kidney disease (12).
7. High Alcohol Intake
Drinking too much alcohol is another common risk factor.
More than just two drinks per day can cause hypertension. This happens as alcohol intake activates the adrenergic nervous system, causing constriction of blood vessels and a simultaneous increase in blood flow and heart rate.
A study published in Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology in 2006 reports that regular consumption of alcohol elevates blood pressure, with global estimates that the attributable risk for hypertensive disease from alcohol is 16 percent.
The study also says that the increase in blood pressure is approximately 1 mmHg for each 10 grams of alcohol consumed and is largely reversible within two to four weeks of abstinence or a substantial reduction in alcohol intake (13).
A 2014 study published in the World Journal of Cardiology establishes the association between high alcohol consumption and hypertension. However, the mechanism through which alcohol raises blood pressure remains elusive.
The harmful toxins and chemicals in cigarette smoke damage the walls of your blood vessels. This increases the risk for the buildup of fatty substances (plaque) inside the arteries (atherosclerosis), a process that high blood pressure is known to accelerate.
A 2006 study found that mean daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings were consistently higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers regardless of antihypertension medication use. Nocturnal dipping was similar for smokers and nonsmokers (15).
9. Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D suppresses the enzymatic process that can constrict the arteries and lead to high blood pressure. Also, the sunshine vitamin improves blood circulation throughout the body, which is essential for your heart to function properly.
10. Health Problems
Sometimes, pregnancy contributes to high blood pressure as well. A 2003 study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology shows that women who have gestational diabetes are more likely to have high blood pressure.
Tips to Reduce High Blood Pressure
- Take your blood pressure medications prescribed by your doctor prescribes on time.
- Do not stop the medications or change the dose without consulting your doctor.
- Monitor your blood pressure at home regularly.
- Try the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and low-fat dairy foods.
- Have foods high in potassium and magnesium in your diet.
- Maintain a healthy weight or lose weight if you’re overweight or obese.
- Limit sugar and refined carbohydrates to help you lose weight and lower your blood pressure.
- Say no to excess drinking and stop smoking totally.
- Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure.
- Practice relaxation or slow, deep breathing to lower your blood pressure.
- Make sure to get good, restful sleep of 7 to 9 hours daily.
- Consider cutting back on caffeine, as it raises your blood pressure temporarily.
- Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fs_bloodpressure.htm. Published June 16, 2016.
- High Blood Pressure. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/family_history.htm. Published April 05, 2018.
- Association between obesity and high blood pressure among Lithuanian adolescents: a cross-sectional study. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4265335/. Published 2014.
- Obesity and elevated blood pressure in suburban student athletes. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. http://bmjopensem.bmj.com/content/3/1/e000276. Published November 01, 2017.
- Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20500611.
- Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension. Current Hypertension Reports. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901083/. Published December 2013.
- Stress and hypertension. WMJ. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9894438. Published December 1998.
- Effect of psychological stress on blood pressure increase: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2009000400002.
- Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension. Electrolytes and Blood Pressure. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105387/. Published June 2014.
- Executive Summary. Chapter 4 – 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/executive-summary/.
- Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a fully controlled dietary intervention study. Nature News. https://www.nature.com/articles/jhh20153. Published February 12, 2015.
- Cardiovascular benefits associated with higher dietary K+ vs. lower dietary Na+: evidence from population and mechanistic studies. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. https://www.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/ajpendo.00453.2016.
- Alcohol is bad for blood pressure. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16922819. Published September 2006.
- Alcohol-induced hypertension: Mechanism and prevention. World Journal of Cardiology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4038773/. Published May 26, 2014.
- Twenty-four hour blood pressure record for smokers and nonsmokers. Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0066-782X2006001700016&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en.
- Does Vitamin D Deficiency Lead to Hypertension? Cureus. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5356990/. Published February 17, 2017.
- Association between gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension. American Journal of Epidemiology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14652299. Published December 15, 2003.